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Corns and calluses are thick/hardened layers of skin. . They develop naturally when your skin tries to protect itself against friction and pressure. They often appear on feet where the bony parts of your feet rub against your shoes. Corns usually appear on the tops or sides of toes while calluses form on the soles of feet.  Corns and calluses can be unsightly.


If you are healthy with minimum comorbidities, treatment may only be necessary for corns and calluses if they cause significant discomfort. For most people, simply eliminating the source of friction or pressure makes corns and calluses disappear. Hammer toes, bunion, or other bony deformity can cause uncomfortable corns and surgical correction of a deformity can eliminate a corn.


If you have diabetes or another condition that causes poor blood flow to your feet, you’re at greater risk of complications from corns and calluses. Common problems include the formation diabetic foot ulcers. Seek your doctor’s advice on proper care for corns and calluses if you have such a condition.


Intractable plantar keratosis (IPK) can typically be misunderstood for a painful callous or corn. They are usually less than 1 cm, on the plantar aspect of the forefoot. Typically, IPKs develop beneath one of the lesser metatarsal heads or under another area of pressure. They tend to form a core that can be very painful like a thorn in the skin and can significantly impair gait. They can be removed without anesthesia in an office setting. They should not be confused with plantar warts and epidermal inclusion cysts.

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